Anchorage Brewing Collaborations

between-the-staves-crooked-stave-labelThere is perhaps no better evidence of the viability of the craft beer movement in the United States than the fact that breweries that have barely established themselves are quick to identify like-minded breweries to produce collaborative brews. In this review I will briefly discuss three new Anchorage Brewing beers, two of them collaborations with other breweries. It has been awhile since I have surveyed new American wild ales and this will also help me understand the evolution of my own taste and the state of brewing with wild yeasts in the United States.

Arctic Soiree is a collaboration between Anchorage Brewing and Grassroots Brewing in Greensboro Bend, Vermont. This beer is fermented and aged in oak tanks with brettanomyces, lime juice, and hibiscus. This bottle is from Batch 1, 2013. Arctic Soiree is a hazy pinkish golden beer that leaves a thin head upon pouring that quickly disappears. There is a mild brett smell among crisp, slightly sweet, notes of grapefruit, hibiscus, and pickles. This beer is quite smooth on the tongue with medium carbonation. Slightly tart, lemony, noticeable brettanomyces funk, and a bitter, lingering, finish. While this beer is only 6% ABV and quite dry it feels somewhat heavy in taste, which makes it a slow sipper. To me this beer was just the sum of its parts and I think I would have preferred it with more lactic notes from bacteria in conjunction with the wild yeast. Tasting this beer also taught me that it becomes a lot easier to recognize an ingredient if you have brewed with it yourself. In recent years I have made a number of successful homebrews with hibiscus and it was not challenging to recognize the aroma and taste of it here. A similar thing has happened to me with brettanomyces yeast after splitting batches into Brett B. and Brett L.

I was quite excited to see “Between the Staves,” Anchorage’s collaboration with Crooked Stave. Crooked Stave’s head brewer and owner Chad Yakobson was an early reader of this blog with whom I exchanged a number of email messages and later I also interviewed him. Another reason to be excited is because this beer is a sour co-fermented by wild yeasts and bacteria — and aged in Cognac barrels. Aging beers in cognac barrels is relatively rare considering the fact that Cognac is a protected regional Brandy from France. Between the Staves was not the first sour aged in cognac barrels though. More than 5 years ago Cantillon released a lambic aged in Cognac barrels named Cantillon 50°N-4°E. Interestingly enough, like traditional lambic, Between the Staves was mostly in contact with wood during the fermentation process as it was fermented in oak foeders instead of the more common steel tanks. One of the biggest surprises for me was the appearance of the beer. There was no information on the label about the malt bill and I had just assumed it to be light or, at most, amber in color. Imagine my surprise when I poured a very dark beer with a brownish hue in the glass – almost cola like. Quite mysterious looking and impossible to see through, even if held against the light. There was little head or lacing persisting after pouring it. A concentrated tart aroma with cherries, nuts, and wood seemed a good match for the appearance of this beer. Unlike some of the brett beers reviewed here the presence of bacteria was quite pronounced and made for quite a sour beer. The mouthfeel was quite thick with medium carbonation. Malty/nutty, sour, balsamic, chocolate, some astringency from the oak and quite a lingering aftertaste. The beer gained a little more complexity as it warmed up and also started showing some sweeter notes. I have not much experience with cognac so I cannot say much about its contribution to the aroma and flavor of this beer. I found it all rather fascinating though. In the past I have expressed some reservations about sour dark beers but this brew just stays clear of the dark roasted character that often seems incompatible with sour beers. Clearly, the “gravitas” of this 7% ABV beer makes this a real sipper which reveals many of its secrets down the road. Do not poor in a narrow beer glass as I had mistakenly done before I corrected this. All in all, a fascinating beer made in the right way.

The most drinkable and refreshing of the three beers I am reviewing is definitely Anchorage’s “Rondy Brew,”  a 6% Saison with lemongrass and brett, fermented and aged in French oak wine tanks and (dry) hopped with Citra hops.  The beer poured a hazy yellow / light orange with quite a stable, fluffy, white head. The aroma is pretty much as expected with a tart fruit notes, well integrated crisp citrus hop aroma, mild brett character, and a little oak. The taste is really a nice interplay between the fruity bitter hops and tartness. There is some astringency from the oak but just enough to give it some added complexity without taking away from the refreshing nature of this beer. Medium mouthfeel and quite a bit of carbonation. Rondy Brew is so drinkable and perfect for the spring or summer.  This beer is definitely more than the sum of its parts and was quite a nice surprise for me as I am normally not into most saisons (due to the yeast), the newer fruit-like hop varieties, or using wild yeast without bacteria. Perhaps conducting the whole fermentation in oak barrels can just provide that little extra tartness that prevents this beer from just being another one of these “saison with brett” beers.

As much I increasingly want to focus on true spontaneously fermented beers, it was quite interesting to review a number of recent American wild ales to see how my taste and thinking has evolved. Seeing beers fermented with “brett” no longer holds the excitement for me that it used to have, although competently done these brews can still have a degree of complexity that is absent in most regular ales. Interestingly enough, now that it seems that any respectable American craft brewery  produces the (obligatory) wild ale or “sour” there is an emerging tendency among serious wild ale brewers to approximate more and more the process of traditional lambic brewing. Spontaneous fermentation is no longer as rare in American craft brewing as it used to be and even inoculated wild ales are fermented in “dirty” barrels with encouraging results. It is quite exciting to entertain the idea that spontaneous fermentation has a good chance of surviving regardless of the fate of Belgian lambic. One element that many American brewers are adding, the use of various botanicals in sour beers, is a development that may even hold promise for some of the more experimental Belgian lambic brewers.


Block 15 Turbulent Consequence Premiere Annee

turbulentWhile American craft brewers release wild ales and beers fermented with “brett” around the clock nowadays, brewers who utilize spontaneous fermentation are still a lot rarer. Block 15′s Turbulent Consequence Première Année is a “spontaneously oak barrel fermented ale” that is brewed each fall and spring  according to Belgium lambic tradition. That means a turbid mash, unmalted wheat, a long boil, aged hops, and cooling of the wort in a coolship before barrel aging. This bottle is a 2012 selection of two barrels and bottled with honey (!). As such, the beer is an interesting approximation of a Belgian gueuze, albeit a little on the younger side.

The beer pours a cloudy, burnt / golden orange;  the head disappears quickly after pouring, producing a flat appearance. The aroma is fairly complex. Lactic notes dominate in addition to sweet, lemon,  funky, “wet cellar,” and brettanomyces notes. The taste is dry, lemony and puckering. Despite its flat appearance, carbonation is moderate, mouth feel is moderate, and there is some astringency from the barrels. This is a dry, light, and refreshing beer. Despite its low alcohol (5.8%), I would not characterize this as a session beer. It’s quite sour (at least the bottle I had), even for people who enjoy this kind of thing (me).

I cannot praise Block 15 highly enough for their ventures into spontaneous fermentation. I’d say that this beer is still a little young and raw and it lacks the complexity and depth of Belgian lambics but spontaneous fermentation and blending is an art that takes many years of experience to perfect. Strangely enough, I would say that this blend could have benefited a little from “something else” (a stronger oak note, botanicals etc.) to take some of the edge of the puckering lacto but that would have made it a different beer. I don’t know if the sweet aroma came from the honey that was added to the bottle, but I do like this natural approach to create carbonation because it adds a little complexity and allows the beer to ferment to dryness.

In December, the Portland Wild Ale Society will be visiting Block 15 to learn more about their spontaneous fermentation project. To be continued…


Inaugural Portland Wild Ale Society Meeting

On October 23, 2013, the Portland Wild Ale Society was established to bring people together with a serious interest in wild ales, sour ales, wild gruits, and lambic beer. We’ll meet to sample classic and new brews, attend craft beer festivals, tour breweries, and share home brews. Occasionally, we’ll also sample “natural wines,” funky ciders, and kombucha.

Are you tired of explaining why “sour beers” are not a “trend” but reflect an ancient and respectable style of brewing? Have all your efforts to brew a sour beer at home failed miserably? Ever sampled lambic, natural wine, and kombucha at a single event? Would you like to meet other people who share your taste in beer? Are you suffering from hop fatigue? Then please join us.

Our inaugural bottle share meeting will be on November 24, 2013. Join our group for more information.


Toer de Geuze 2013

Toer de Geuze, a Belgian beer tour celebrating the regional gueuze beer style, is held in Flanders every two years. This year’s tour was held on April 21, 2013. And while Aschwin has taken the tour a couple of times before with his father Theo, this was my first time to tag along. Since we have been enjoying the style in general and beers from breweries on the tour specifically for at least 5 years now, I am actually quite happy that I was not able to attend earlier. I was able to appreciate the tour that much more, and with considerable knowledge already at my disposal.

We attended a music festival in the Netherlands before going on the tour, but since that is not the subject of this review I will start with our arrival in Dworp the evening prior. Aschwin’s father, Theo, met us in Leiden late in the evening and drove us to our lodging – a massive building on a large estate, all of which gave me the impression of it being the home of a wealthy English family. Since we did not want to incur international or roaming charges on Theo’s Dutch mobile phone, Aschwin had written down directions to our destination. Somehow, though it was the dead of night and we used no GPS, we made it to the hotel flawlessly.

The next morning did not go as well. Using the same strategy, we quickly became lost and began going in circles. Aschwin and his father argued in Dutch the whole time, occasionally pulling over to accost a pedestrian and inquire for information. Finally, someone was able to guide us to our destination.

Aschwin and Theo prepare to mount our trusty steed, Tour Bus Number 6.

Aschwin and Theo prepare to mount our trusty steed, Tour Bus Number 6

We pulled into the parking lot and got on the appropriate bus for the route we had chosen. We had decided to take the tour visiting Hannsen’s, 3 Fonteinen, Oud Beersel, Boon, and Tilquin. Everyone on the bus looked pretty happy and excited. The tour guide came over the loud speaker and, thankfully, addressed us in English, the universal language. “Are you awake? Yes? Are you ready to start drinking?” he asked. It was 10:00 am, and time to get the show on the road.

Hanssen’s

Enjoying the farm scenery at Hanssen's

Enjoying the farm scenery at Hanssen’s

Our first stop was Hanssen’s, where we visited from 10:20 – 11:00 am. Hanssen’s is an old brewery housed in a barn and surrounded by farm animals. Our first beer was a “straight” lambic – one which has not been blended – tapped directly from a cask into into our waiting glasses. I was not able to ascertain the age of the brew, unfortunately. It was very straightforward, being quite still (i.e., uncarbonated) and tart, the defining characteristics of a straight lambic.

A very old bottling machine still in use at Hanssen's today.

A very old bottling machine still in use at Hanssen’s today

We followed the straight lambic with a gueuze, which we carried with us as we wandered the brewery observing the old machines that are still used to bottle Hannsen’s brews and rows of ancient barrels crusted with the foamy eruptions of the beer fermenting inside. Some newer barrels were in use too, which looked oddly out of place in what was otherwise a display of ancient brewing tradition.

Fermentation in a very old barrel.

Fermentation in a very old barrel

Outside, there were a few booths offering edibles. We decided to have some sausage, thinking it wise to put something in our bellies before continuing our long day of alcohol consumption.

3 Fonteinen

Staff poured gueuze and straight lambic for thirsty tourists.

3 Fonteinen staff poured gueuze and straight lambic for thirsty tourists

After quick ride down the highway to the town of Beersel, we were allowed 50 minutes at our next stop, 3 Fonteinen. Some of you may have heard about the storage place thermostat disaster at this brewery in 2009 which resulted in the loss of close to 100,000 small bottles of beer. I remember wondering if they would be able to recover from this event.

The good news is that they eventually did. An all new brewery, financed entirely by beer sales, enables them to produce more great beer than ever – up to 4,000 liters at a time. I savored a 1 year old straight lambic while I took the English tour and heard about the new equipment and the design of the brewery.

4 x 1000 liter coolships at 3 Fonteinen

4 x 1000 liter coolships at 3 Fonteinen

Four enormous 1,000 liter capacity coolships were among the most impressive sights. In the barrel room we also saw washed rind cheeses aging on a rack. At the end of the tour, we saw these cheeses for sale along with 3 Fonteinen beers.

Jotting down some notes while enjoying an Oude Gueuze on our 3 Fonteinen stop

Jotting down some notes while enjoying an Oude Gueuze on our 3 Fonteinen stop

A venue across the road was also open and serving beer to accommodate the unusually large number of people visiting the brewery. We stopped in to enjoy an Oude Gueuze before leaving. The crossing guard was happily directing traffic with a beer in his hand. Only in Belgium!

Oud Beersel

Though Oud Beersel stopped brewing in 1992, they do still produce and sell beer. Here’s how: they give their recipe to another brewery, Boon, which brews the wort. Oud Beersel then obtains the wort from Boon and blends their own gueuze in small batches. In fact, they are one of the smallest “breweries” on the tour, as evidenced by their coolship, which resembles a very large bathtub.

Oud Beersel's 2400 liter coolship

Oud Beersel’s 2400 liter coolship

Oud Beersel is known for their mild lambic, which we enjoyed as we took a guided tour through their gueuze museum. This little museum was quite spectacular, with lots of examples of old machinery, diagrams of traditional brewing practices, and even a couple of small rooms set up to resemble parts of the brewery in days gone by.

A room in the Oud Beersel museum

A room in the Oud Beersel museum

Like any good museum, the tour ended in the gift shop. There, Theo bought us shirts before we headed outside to enjoy Oud Beersel sponsored festivities across the street, which included a marching band, a bagpipe band, and a whole pig being roasted on a spit.

Boon

We arrived at Boon a little before 2:00 pm and were given an hour to return to the bus, which I think was not really long enough. Boon is a large brewery and there were a LOT of people there, making it a much more raucous affair than the breweries we had visited earlier in the day. After standing in line for 10 or 15 minutes, we were able to take a tour of the facilities, which included plenty of large volume stainless steel mash kettles, lauter tuns, fermenters, and other types of tanks as well as a fancy bottling machine.

Several large volume stainless steel tanks at Boon

Several large volume stainless steel tanks at Boon

The Boon brewery also hosted the largest barrels of any brewery on the tour. These positively enormous casks appeared to be around 10 feet in diameter and each brandished a label with its numerical identifier.

Boon's truly massive 10,000+ liter barrels

Boon’s truly massive 10,000+ liter barrels

After the tour, we had a few moments to enjoy some beer in the tented beer garden on the premises. We had a 3 year old straight lambic to start, followed by Boon’s Vat 44 “mono blend” (90% from “Big Barrel No. 44”). Vat 44 was brewed on December 3-4, 2008, and fermented in cask No. 44, an oak barrel of 10,300 liter capacity that is over 100 years old. On August 31, 2010, Boon bottled 20,522 bottles of this brew.

Boon's Vat 44

Vat 44 mono-blend

Vat 44 smelled of brett and dust, but also a bit fruity and sweet. The taste, however, was quite dry and tart with a short finish and a bitter end note. It’s light mouthfeel made it an easy drinker despite the 8.5% ABV rating. It was good enough that we grabbed a few bottles from the store on our way back to the tour bus. I like Boon lambics myself but Aschwin doesn’t quite appreciate the bitter notes in them.

Gueuzerie Tilquin

Our last stop of the tour was at the rather new business of Gueuzerie Tilquin. Located in Bierghes, in the Senne valley, Tilquin is the only gueuze blendery in the Walloon region. Since we were no longer in Flanders, this was also the only French-speaking gueuze site we visited that day.

Tilquin, like Oud Beersel, is a blendery. In 2009, they started purchasing freshly brewed lambic from various producers (including Cantillon!) and putting into old oak barrels they had acquired for fermentation for 1, 2, or 3 years. The lambics are then blended and bottled to produce their signature brew, the Gueuze Tilquin à L’Ancienne.

Tanks and barrels at Gueuzerie Tilquin

Tanks and barrels at Gueuzerie Tilquin

The tour for this small facility was actually rather long, and we wound up having to cut out of it early in order to make it back to the bus before it left us behind altogether. But the staff seemed very enthusiastic and knowledgeable. They’ve even begun making a beer from the spontaneous fermentation of destoned fresh purple plums (The Questsche Tilquin à l’ancienne). We did not have time to try it, but it sounds really interesting!

The Aftermath

While we were at least smart enough to eat a few things here and there throughout the day, we really didn’t have any other liquids (like WATER) besides beer the whole day. I honestly don’t even recall water being offered at any of the breweries we visited, but perhaps I wasn’t paying close enough attention. And though it seems the Europeans were all perfectly okay with this beer-only approach, I noticed a dull headache just before the last brewery visit.

I felt okay through the end of the tour, but as soon as we reached our car in the parking lot things took a turn for the worse. By the time we reached De Heeren van Liedekercke (which is known for its extensive vintage lambic and Orval menus) for dinner I was absolutely miserable. I am certain that this was the worst headache I have ever experienced in my entire life, as the pain was near-crippling.

The last smile I was able to muster, just as the throbbing in my head began

The last smile I was able to muster, just as the throbbing in my head began

Before heading to the bathroom to writhe in pain in private for a few moments I asked Aschwin to order some WATER for me. Upon my return, I was chagrined to find sparkling water in my glass. Still, I was thirsty. So I drank it.

Aschwin and Theo had ordered more beer (!!!) and were looking the menus over. I didn’t want anything – it all made my stomach turn. My head was throbbing. The common simile of a jackhammer on the skull would have been a royal understatement. I was increasingly sensitive to light, sound, and motion. Everything caused severe pain.

I must have looked pretty bad at that point. Finally, Theo offered the keys to the car so I could go lie down. But moving around so much did something to the carbonated contents of my stomach….

When it was over I felt quite a bit better (though certainly not great) and was able to lie down and get some rest until Aschwin and Theo returned. Riding back to the hotel with my head in Aschwin’s lap I marveled at what had happened.

Alright Toer de Gueuze, I’ve learned my lesson, but I’m not going to let it get me down. I’m bringing some water bottles with me next time.


Health benefits of lambic beer

For a long time I have wanted to write a blog post on the (possible) health benefits of lambic beer. I am not sure if one could argue that lambic is healthy in terms of extending the average human lifespan (let alone the maximum human lifespan!), not to mention the risk of alcoholism, but there are a number of aspects about traditional lambic beer that compare favorably to most other beer styles.

1.  The most obvious characteristic of lambic beer is that it is the product of both yeast and bacterial fermentation. As a result, lambic beer is much more of a probiotic than most other beer styles and may contribute to healthy gut flora. In addition, if you believe that humans do best to adapt to a diet and lifestyle closer to our ancestors (such as adherents of the Paleo Diet), lambic beer is a more logical choice (or, at a minimum, the least harmful) than modern pasteurized and bacteria-deficient beers.

2. Another interesting characteristic of lambic beer is that it is typically fermented bone dry with little residual sugar (Cantillon beers are a good example). This does not make it an “ideal” drink for diabetes patients, but you can certainly do a lot worse by drinking beer styles that have a lot of residual sugars such as imperial stouts or barley wines.

3. Another interesting aspect about lambic beer is that is has relatively low amounts of hops. The phytoestrogens in hops have been identified as potent inhibitors of testosterone, which supposedly contributed to hops becoming dominant as the sole herb (at the exclusion of more, well, “sexually potent” herbs) among Protestant reformers. When we think of testosterone we usually tend to think of body builders and juvenile aggression but testosterone has a number of important physiological roles in the human body for both males and females. One interesting question is whether the tradition of contemporary lambic brewers to use oxidized hops makes a difference, too.

4. Lambic beers are typically lower in alcohol. Unless you are an American “wild ale” brewer who believes that “more is more,” or you are a lambic brewer called Boon, lambic beer usually has a modest alcohol percentage between 4.5% and 6%.  Alcohol is a strong diuretic and, like hops, has been associated with lower testosterone levels, too.

5. A number of lambic brewers (yet again, Cantillon) lean strongly towards the use or organic ingredients and abhor the use of artificial ingredients or processes.

Caveats and additional thoughts:

Clearly, this post is not the final word on the health aspects of lambic beer and some of these benefits may need to be further qualified or may turn out to be non-existent or only applicable to certain populations, genders, and age groups. It should be obvious that almost everything that I have said here applies to traditional lambics, not the pasteurized, sweetened beers that, unfortunately, use the same name. It should be rather obvious, too, that most of what is said here also applies to many American “wild ales,” provided alcohol and hops are kept at reasonable levels and added fruit is allowed to ferment to dryness.

Instead of thinking of lambic as a specific beer style we can also think of it as a framework to approach brewing in general. This opens up the possibility of reinventing many traditional beer styles and allowing elements of the lambic brewing process to play a role in these other kinds of beer. For example, the use of wild yeast to lower residual sugar in a beer or the addition of (wild) bacteria.

Most people do not drink beer for its health benefits, but it would be interesting to think about how to further improve the health aspects of lambic beer. What about using a different herb than hops to inhibit proliferation of undesirable bacteria and further enhance its health benefits (making a so called wild gruit)?  What about blending lambic with red grapes such as in Cantillon’s Saint Lamvinus, or blending it with wine or kombucha as some experimental brewers have recently done? It is conceivable that beer will always lose against red wine (of the “natural” variety that is) in terms of health benefits, a price that some beer drinkers will not mind paying. Then again, lambic drinkers often like wine too, so choosing the right proportions may be just what the doctor ordered (sic)…